The uppercut (formerly known as the undercut; sometimes also referred to as the upper) is a punch used in boxing that usually aims at the opponent's chin. It is, along with the cross, one of the two main punches that count in the statistics as power punches.[citation needed] Uppercuts are useful when thrown at close range, because they are considered to cause more damage when at close range.[citation needed] Additionally, it is likely that a boxer would miss if the uppercut is thrown when the opponents are apart. Uppercuts usually do more damage when landed to the chin, but they can also cause damage when thrown to the body (particularly the solar plexus) or when landing on the nose or eyes.[citation needed] The punch moves as its name implies: it usually initiates from the attacker's belly, making an upward motion that resembles a pirate's hook in shape, before landing on the opponent's face or body. In a conventional boxing combination, it is the second punch thrown, after the jab, but it can either initiate or finish a combination. When performing an uppercut, the attacker should stay close to the target, so as to prevent the opponent from detecting that the punch is coming, and countering with a straight punch. An uppercut from the outside also loses some of its power because the arm is no longer bent at the elbow and cannot effectively transfer the total body's force in the upward movement.[1] Samuel Elias, also known as "Dutch Sam", is credited with creating this punch originally called an "undercut".[citation needed] It was reported that "Dutch Sam created havoc with the new blow until a new way was found to blo k it".[2] Boxers famous for their uppercuts include Lennox Lewis, Joe Louis, Wilfredo Gomez, Julio Cesar Chavez, Chris Arreola, Buster Douglas, Mike Tyson, Ruben Olivares, and Manny Pacquiao. A jab is a type of punch used in the martial arts. Several variations of the jab exist, but every jab shares these characteristics: while in a fighting stance, the lead fist is thrown straight ahead and the arm is fully extended. It is an overhand punch; at the moment of impact, the pronated fist is generally held in a horizontal orientation with the palm facing the ground. Etymology The word jab was first used in 1825, to mean "to thrust with a point." The term is a Scottish variant of the word job, which means "to strike, pierce, thrust."[1] [edit]Uses for the jab [edit]Defense A jab is an integral part of a fighter's defense. Its speed and power of execution and reach can keep the opponent at a distance, preventing him from charging in. Defensive jabs can be employed while moving backwards. [edit]Speed jab This jab gives a fighter high mobility and is often used with the intention of scoring points. Fighters use this variation of the jab when they want to preserve the mobility and balance of their stance. [edit]Rangefinding jab Used in order to establish a feeling for distance, the rangefinding jab is often used to set up a power punch with the other hand. Thus it can help conserve stamina and lower the risk of being countered by allowing the fighter to commit his stronger hand only when he is within proper range. In rare instances, fighters with below-average punch-resistance have been wobbled by a rangefinding jab.